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Science's list of the nine other groundbreaking achievements from 2010


Synthetic Biology: In a defining moment for biology and biotechnology, researchers built a synthetic genome and used it to transform the identity of a bacterium. The genome replaced the bacterium's DNA so that it produced a new set of proteins -- an achievement that prompted a Congressional hearing on synthetic biology. In the future, researchers envision synthetic genomes that are custom-built to generate biofuels, pharmaceuticals or other useful chemicals.
Neandertal Genome: Researchers sequenced the Neandertal genome from the bones of three female Neandertals who lived in Croatia sometime between 38,000 and 44,000 years ago. New methods of sequencing degraded fragments of DNA allowed scientists to make the first direct comparisons between the modern human genome and that of our Neandertal ancestors.
HIV Prophylaxis: Two HIV prevention trials of different, novel strategies reported unequivocal success: A vaginal gel that contains the anti-HIV drug tenofovir reduced HIV infections in women by 39 percent and an oral pre-exposure prophylaxis led to 43.8 fewer HIV infections in a group of men and transgender women who have sex with men.
Exome Sequencing/Rare Disease Genes: By sequencing just the exons of a genome, or the tiny portion that actually codes for proteins, researchers who study rare inherited diseases caused by a single, flawed gene were able to identify specific mutations underlying at least a dozen diseases.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations: Simulating the gyrations that proteins make as they fold has been a combinatorial nightmare. Now, researchers have harnessed the power of one of the world's most powerful computers to track the motions of atoms in a small, folding protein for a length of time 100 times longer than any previous efforts.
Quantum Simulator: To describe what they see in the lab, physicists cook up theories based on equations. Those equations can be fiendishly hard to solve. This year, though, researchers found a short-cut by making quantum simulators -- artificial crystals in which spots of laser light play the role of ions and atoms trapped in the light stand in for electrons. The devices provide quick answers to theoretical problems in condensed matter physics and they might eventually help solve mysteries such as superconductivity.
Next-Generation Genomics: Faster and cheaper sequencing technologies are enabling very large-scale studies of both ancient and modern DNA. The 1,000 Genomes Project, for example, has already identified much of the genome variation that makes us uniquely human -- and other projects in the works are set to reveal much more of the genome's function.
RNA Reprogramming: Reprogramming cells -- turning back their developmental clocks to make them behave like unspecialized "stem cells" in an embryo -- has become a standard lab technique for studying diseases and development. This year, researchers found a way to do it using synthetic RNA. Compared with previous methods, the new technique is twice as fast, 100 times as efficient and potentially safer for therapeutic use.
The Return of the Rat: Mice rule the world of laboratory animals, but for many purposes researchers would rather use rats. Rats are easier to work with and anatomically more similar to human beings; their big drawback is that methods used to make "knockout mice" -- animals tailored for research by having specific genes precisely disabled -- don't work for rats. A flurry of research this year, however, promises to bring "knockout rats" to labs in a big way.

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367 [한국생산기술연구원] 하반기 우수인재 채용공고 file 편성열_정보간사 2018.10.10 164
366 EU Trends 창간호 배포 안내 file VeKNI 2014.06.05 4985
» Science's list of the nine other groundbreaking achievements from 2010 VeKNI 2010.12.18 82271
364 A list of these 10 "Insights of the Decade" VeKNI 2010.12.18 131557
363 Science's Breakthrough of the Year: The First Quantum Machine VeKNI 2010.12.18 59978
362 How to soften a diamond VeKNI 2010.12.16 45325
361 Energy Concept for an Environmentally Sound, Reliable and Affordable Energy Supply-01 file VeKNI 2010.12.16 59220
360 Energy Concept for an Environmentally Sound, Reliable and Affordable Energy Supply-02 file VeKNI 2010.12.16 18708
359 DLR and NASA conclude bilateral framework agreement VeKNI 2010.12.14 30068
358 a novel way to switch light all-optically on a chip VeKNI 2010.12.08 22247
357 프랑스파스퇴르연구소 현황 file VeKNI 2010.03.16 30871
356 IBM 쮜리히 연구소 소개 (ZRL) VeKNI 2010.03.16 25370
355 BMBF's draft budget for 2010 VeKNI 2010.03.16 30720
354 BMBF’s Budget for 2009 VeKNI 2010.03.16 27657
353 BMBF’s Budget for 2008 VeKNI 2010.03.16 30981
352 2008년 독일 과학기술 동향 file VeKNI 2010.03.16 24821
351 The year of science 2010 - “The future of energy” VeKNI 2010.03.15 24379
350 Hightech-Strategie: Germany is gaining more profile as a location for science VeKNI-C 2010.03.04 27505
349 2010 ESCO 관리자 교육 file VeKNI 2010.03.04 27251
348 RWTH Aachen Campus VeKNI 2010.02.22 21550
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